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C Bleakley, M Eskandari, O Aldalati, K Moschonas, M Huang, A Whittaker, and M J Monaghan

Introduction 2D echocardiography, including Doppler, is the most commonly used method of assessment of mitral stenosis (MS) and is the basis of current guidelines on its management ( 1 , 2 ). However, the mitral valve is a complex structure

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Alfonso Pecoraro, Jacques Janson, and Jacob Daniel Cilliers

was normal with a loud second heart sound and a diastolic rumble. Given these findings, a clinical diagnosis of severe mitral stenosis with pulmonary hypertension was made. ECG was atypical for mitral stenosis, it revealed a dilated LA with left axis

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Daniel A Jeffery, Guy Lloyd, and Arjun K Ghosh

Summary A 38-year-old male was referred to our valve clinic for assessment. The patient had been diagnosed with untreated rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) in 2009. The patient was diagnosed with atrial fibrillation in 2016 (on warfarin with good

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Shaun Robinson, Liam Ring, Daniel X Augustine, Sushma Rekhraj, David Oxborough, Allan Harkness, Patrizio Lancellotti, and Bushra Rana

inversely proportional to the valve area ( 13 ). It is on this basis that estimates of P½t can be utilised to estimate MVA. When assessing mitral stenosis, the rate of pressure decay can be measured and utilised to calculate valve area (equation 5) where

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Isaac Adembesa, Adriaan Myburgh, and Justiaan Swanevelder

over the aortic area. She had a pulsatile liver. Investigations Transthoracic echocardiography Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examination demonstrated thickened mitral valve leaflets with severe mitral stenosis (MS), moderate

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Vishal Sharma, David E Newby, Ralph A H Stewart, Mildred Lee, Ruvin Gabriel, Niels Van Pelt, and Andrew J Kerr

equivocal symptoms were identified from echocardiogram reports and outpatient clinics in the Auckland region. These comprised patients with isolated aortic stenosis (AS), aortic regurgitation (AR), MR and mitral stenosis (MS). All patients had normal left

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Camelia Demetrescu, Shelley Rahman Haley, and Aigul Baltabaeva

, asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (maximum wall thickness 20 mm) and preserved radial systolic function. There was complete systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve at rest with LVOT gradient of 57 mmHg increasing to 82 mmHg with Valsalva and associated

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Catrin Williams, Anca Mateescu, Emma Rees, Kirstie Truman, Claire Elliott, Bohdana Bahlay, Ailsa Wallis, and Adrian Ionescu

one case of mild rheumatic mitral stenosis. In the AS and MR groups each, one patient had valve intervention, two and one respectively are now under follow-up in the valve clinic, while two and four respectively refused formal echo or follow-up in the

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Sveeta Badiani, Jet van Zalen, Saad Saheecha, Lesley Hart, Ann Topham, Nikhil Patel, Lydia Sturridge, Andrew Marshall, Neil Sulke, Stephen Furniss, and Guy Lloyd

during follow-up (2 due to severe aortic stenosis and 1 due to severe mitral regurgitation and moderate AR; Table 3 ). No patients underwent a TAVI procedure, and no patients underwent aortic valve replacement for primary AR. There were no differences

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A J Fletcher, S Robinson, and B S Rana

varying degrees of rheumatic mitral stenosis. Unfortunately, the statistical analysis values were not reported for this relationship which reduces the credibility of this piece of evidence. Altered RV systolic function As well as Utsunomiya et al