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Richard P Steeds, Richard Wheeler, Sanjeev Bhattacharyya, Joseph Reiken, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, Roxy Senior, Mark J Monaghan, and Vishal Sharma

. Dyspnoea is defined as difficult, laboured or uncomfortable breathing, which is a non-specific symptom that can reflect several underlying diseases, including lack of physical fitness, obesity, lung disease, heart failure and ischaemia. The prevalence rate

Open access

Adrian Chenzbraun

200 consecutive stress studies carried out over a period of 1 year were conducted for valvular heart disease (VHD) (A Chenzbraun, personal data). Similarly, out of 800 English language papers on stress echocardiography, published over the last 10 years

Open access

M Alsharqi, W J Woodward, J A Mumith, D C Markham, R Upton, and P Leeson

Background Echocardiography plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of patients with cardiovascular disease. Since echocardiography is the only imaging modality that permits real-time imaging of the heart, it allows the immediate

Open access

Peter H Waddingham, Sanjeev Bhattacharyya, Jet Van Zalen, and Guy Lloyd

in terms of population demographics and represented the heterogenous patient population with non-ischaemic systolic HF. The clinical definitions for patients with DCM and exclusion methods for ischaemic heart disease were compared, and these often

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Sanjeev Bhattacharyya, Denise Parkin, and Keith Pearce

-up so intervention can be performed at the optimal time. The purpose of a heart valve clinic is to improve patient outcomes by providing an accurate diagnosis and timely follow-up and treatment of heart valve disease. Particular importance is placed on

Open access

Jet van Zalen, Nikhil R Patel, Steven J Podd, Prashanth Raju, Rob McIntosh, Gary Brickley, Louisa Beale, Lydia P Sturridge, and Guy W L Lloyd

receive CRT and the remaining 27 did not qualify for CRT at the time of the study. Although no significant differences were found for the presence of ischaemic heart disease, there was a trend observed for hospitalisation ( P =0.25) and survival ( P =0

Open access

Ying X Gue, Sanjay S Bhandari, and Damian J Kelly

) included a previous history of smoking and a positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease. Examination revealed an ejection systolic murmur with an absent second heart sound. Given the ECG findings, the patient was brought directly into the

Open access

John B Chambers

regurgitation are not at risk and can have exercise using a standard Bruce protocol with the same number of exercise physiologists as for a test for ischaemic heart disease. Patients with aortic or mitral stenosis are more likely to be elderly and may also have

Open access

Benoy N Shah, Anita MacNab, Jane Lynch, Reinette Hampson, Roxy Senior, and Richard P Steeds

cornerstone of any stress echocardiography service, the clinical utility of the technique has broadened significantly in the ensuing years. As an example, there is growing appreciation of the value of stress testing in patients with valvular heart disease

Open access

Thomas Mathew, Lynne Williams, Govardhan Navaratnam, Bushra Rana, Richard Wheeler, Katherine Collins, Allan Harkness, Richard Jones, Dan Knight, Kevin O'Gallagher, David Oxborough, Liam Ring, Julie Sandoval, Martin Stout, Vishal Sharma, Richard P Steeds, and on behalf of the British Society of Echocardiography Education Committee

states (intra-cardiac shunts and valvular regurgitation) and ischaemic heart disease. Abbreviations Views  A2C Apical two chamber  A4C Apical four chamber  A5C Apical five chamber  A3C Apical long axis or