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C Bleakley, M Eskandari, O Aldalati, K Moschonas, M Huang, A Whittaker, and M J Monaghan

Introduction 2D echocardiography, including Doppler, is the most commonly used method of assessment of mitral stenosis (MS) and is the basis of current guidelines on its management ( 1 , 2 ). However, the mitral valve is a complex structure

Open access

Alfonso Pecoraro, Jacques Janson, and Jacob Daniel Cilliers

was normal with a loud second heart sound and a diastolic rumble. Given these findings, a clinical diagnosis of severe mitral stenosis with pulmonary hypertension was made. ECG was atypical for mitral stenosis, it revealed a dilated LA with left axis

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Shaun Robinson, Liam Ring, Daniel X Augustine, Sushma Rekhraj, David Oxborough, Allan Harkness, Patrizio Lancellotti, and Bushra Rana

inversely proportional to the valve area ( 13 ). It is on this basis that estimates of P½t can be utilised to estimate MVA. When assessing mitral stenosis, the rate of pressure decay can be measured and utilised to calculate valve area (equation 5) where

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Daniel A Jeffery, Guy Lloyd, and Arjun K Ghosh

Summary A 38-year-old male was referred to our valve clinic for assessment. The patient had been diagnosed with untreated rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) in 2009. The patient was diagnosed with atrial fibrillation in 2016 (on warfarin with good

Open access

Isaac Adembesa, Adriaan Myburgh, and Justiaan Swanevelder

over the aortic area. She had a pulsatile liver. Investigations Transthoracic echocardiography Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examination demonstrated thickened mitral valve leaflets with severe mitral stenosis (MS), moderate

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Vishal Sharma, David E Newby, Ralph A H Stewart, Mildred Lee, Ruvin Gabriel, Niels Van Pelt, and Andrew J Kerr

equivocal symptoms were identified from echocardiogram reports and outpatient clinics in the Auckland region. These comprised patients with isolated aortic stenosis (AS), aortic regurgitation (AR), MR and mitral stenosis (MS). All patients had normal left

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A J Fletcher, S Robinson, and B S Rana

varying degrees of rheumatic mitral stenosis. Unfortunately, the statistical analysis values were not reported for this relationship which reduces the credibility of this piece of evidence. Altered RV systolic function As well as Utsunomiya et al

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Preetham R Muskula, Rigoberto Ramirez, A Michael Borkon, and Michael L Main

Summary An 84-year-old man presented 5 years after bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement with three months of worsening dyspnea on exertion. A new mitral stenosis murmur was noted on physical examination, and an electrocardiogram revealed

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Barun Kumar, Anupam Singh, and Mohamad Akram

huge P wave. Echocardiography examination revealed severe mitral stenosis (MS) (mitral valve area (MVA): 0.65 cm 2 by planimetry, Fig. 1 A; a mean gradient of 33 mmHg across mitral valve, Fig. 1 B), severe pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH

Open access

Darwish I Naji, Alexander Pak, Jamie Lawless, and Michael L Main

patient, reviewed the manuscript for content and served as senior author. References 1 Tiong IY Novaro GM Jefferson B Monson M Smedira N Penn MS 2002 Bacterial endocarditis and functional mitral stenosis: a report of two cases and brief