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Nuno Pires, Wei Li, Roxy Senior, and Rajdeep S Khattar

Background Due to its common association with other congenital heart defects, DOMV is usually discovered in childhood or early adolescence ( 1 ). This case highlights the possibility of detecting congenital mitral valve anomalies, not only in

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Michelle Carr, Stephanie Curtis, and Jan Marek

. Coarctation of the aorta Coarctation of the aorta refers to narrowing of the aortic isthmus. It is a common congenital heart lesion, which usually presents in infancy with reduced femoral pulses and accounts for 5–8% of all congenital heart defects. The term

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Hannah Bellsham-Revell and Navroz Masani

Sequential segmental analysis allows clear description of the cardiac structure in a logical fashion without assumptions and confusing nomenclature. Each segment is analysed, and then the connections described followed by any associated anomalies. For the echocardiographer there are several key features of the cardiac structures to help differentiate and accurately describe them.

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Meryl S Cohen and Luc L Mertens

Echocardiographic assessment of patients with transposition of the great arteries and congenitally corrected transposition requires awareness of the morphology and commonly associated lesions. The pre-operative echocardiography should include a full segmental and sequential analysis. Post-operative assessment is not possible without awareness of the type of surgical procedure performed and consists of assessing surgical connections and residual lesions.

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J D R Thomson and S A Qureshi

Cardiac erosion related to transcatheter atrial septal defect closure devices is of increasing concern. Erosion is reported to have occurred with most of currently available occluder devices. Perhaps due to the very large number of implants worldwide, the Amplatzer (St Jude) occluder is associated with the majority of cardiac erosion events reported in the literature. Best current estimates of the incidence of erosion with the St Jude device are between one and three cases per 1000 implants. Most events occur early after implantation and it is rare, although not unheard of, for events to occur after a year following device insertion. It is important that those involved with closure programmes are vigilant for the problem, because device-related erosion is associated with a significant mortality risk. Despite considerable debate, the risk factors (either patient or device) for erosion remain unclear and require further investigation. Currently available data sets have focussed largely on erosion cohorts and are unable to place these cases in appropriate context with non-erosion closure cases. What is certain is that programmes implanting these devices must take care to implant appropriately sized devices and have in place plans to ensure that patients are both well informed and can access help and advice in the event of developing symptoms.

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R Bedair and X Iriart

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common cyanotic congenital heart defect, affecting 3 in 10,000 live births. Surgical correction in early childhood is associated with good outcomes, but lifelong follow-up is necessary to identify the long-term sequelae that may occur. This article will cover the diagnosis of TOF in childhood, the objectives of surveillance through adulthood and the value of multi-modality imaging in identifying and guiding timely surgical and percutaneous interventions.

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Antigoni Deri and Kate English

Introduction Congenital heart disease affects 8–12 infants per 1000 live births ( 1 ). In the United Kingdom, we perform around 10,000 surgical and interventional procedures for congenital heart defects every year. Congenital heart lesions are

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Ramasamy Manivarmane, Rebecca Taylor, and Rajdeep Khattar

found to have bicuspid pulmonary valves ( 6 ). Two of these cases had associated congenital heart defects and one had an isolated bicuspid pulmonary valve. In our patient, echocardiography was performed to exclude infective endocarditis and a bicuspid

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John M Simpson and Annemien van den Bosch

automation to a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects. In a research setting, individual patient valves can be modeled to produce a ‘patient-specific’ view of abnormal valves ( Fig. 5 ). Patients with CHD are prone to endocarditis and 3D echocardiography

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Aleksandra Trzebiatowska-Krzynska, Mieke Driessen, Gertjan Tj Sieswerda, Lars Wallby, Eva Swahn, and Folkert Meijboom

congenital heart defects, KBR produces RV volumes and EF that are sufficiently parallel to those derived from CMR to be clinically useful in a ‘real-world’ setting. Despite a 2D image quality that is generally inferior to that in children, it is good enough