Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author: M J Monaghan x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Z H Teoh, J Roy, J Reiken, M Papitsas, J Byrne and M J Monaghan

Moderate-to-severe tricuspid regurgitation is associated with higher mortality and morbidity yet remains significantly undertreated. The reasons for this are complex but include a higher operative mortality for patients undergoing isolated tricuspid valve surgery. This study sought to determine the prevalence of patients with moderate-to-severe tricuspid regurgitation and identify those who could be potentially suitable for percutaneous tricuspid valve intervention by screening patients referred for transthoracic echocardiography (ECHO) at a tertiary center. Our results showed that the prevalence of moderate-to-severe tricuspid regurgitation in our total ECHO patient population was 2.8%. Of these, approximately one in eight patients with moderate-to-severe tricuspid regurgitation would be potentially suitable for percutaneous intervention and suggests a large, unmet clinical need in this population.

Open access

Y Tayyareci, R Dworakowski, P Kogoj, J Reiken, C Kenny, P MacCarthy, O Wendler and M J Monaghan

Objective

To assess the impact of mitral geometry, left ventricular (LV) remodelling and global LV afterload on mitral regurgitation (MR) after trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

Methods

In this study, 60 patients who underwent TAVI were evaluated by 3D echocardiography at baseline, 1 month and 6 months after procedure. The proportional change in MR following TAVI was determined by examining the percentage change in vena contracta (VC) at 6 months. Patients having a significant reduction of at least 30% in VC were defined as good responders (GR) and the remaining patients were defined as poor responders (PR).

Results

After 6 months of TAVI, 27 (45%) patients were GR and 33 (55%) were PR. There was a significant decrease in 3DE-derived mitral annular diameter and area (P = 0.001), mitral valve tenting area (TA) (P = 0.05), and mitral papillary muscle dyssynchrony index (DSI) (P = 0.05) in the GR group. 3DE-derived LVESV (P = 0.016), LV mass (P = 0.001) and LV DSI, (P = 0.001) were also improved 6 months after TAVI. In addition, valvulo-arterial impedance (ZVA) was significantly higher at baseline in patients with PR (P = 0.028). 3DE-derived mitral annular area (β: 0.47, P = 0.04), mitral papillary DSI (β: −0.65, P = 0.012) and ZVA (β: 0.45, P = 0.028) were the strongest independent parameters that could predict the reduction of functional MR after TAVI.

Conclusion

GR patients demonstrate more regression in mitral annulus area and diameter after significant decrease in high LVEDP and trans-aortic gradients with TAVI. PR patients appear to have increased baseline ZVA, mitral valve tenting and restriction in mitral valve coaptation. These factors are important for predicting the impact of TAVI on pre-existing MR.

Open access

L D Hunter, M Monaghan, G Lloyd, A J K Pecoraro, A F Doubell and P G Herbst

Summary

The 2012 World Heart Federation (WHF) criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) identify that the finding of ‘pathological’ mitral regurgitation (MR) in a screened individual increases the likelihood of detecting underlying RHD. Cases of isolated ‘pathological MR’ are thus identified as ‘borderline RHD’. A large-scale echocardiographic screening program (Echo in Africa) in South Africa has identified that inter-scallop separations of the posterior mitral valve leaflet (PMVL) can give rise to ‘pathological’ MR. The authors propose that this entity in isolation should be identified and excluded from the WHF ‘borderline RHD’ category. In this case report, we present two examples of ‘pathological’ MR related to inter-scallop separation from the Echo in Africa image database. We further provide screening tips for the accurate identification of this entity.

Open access

L D Hunter, M Monaghan, G Lloyd, A J K Pecoraro, A F Doubell and P G Herbst

This focused review presents a critical appraisal of the World Heart Federation criteria for the echocardiographic diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and its performance in African RHD screening programmes. It identifies various logistical and methodological problems that negatively influence the current guideline’s performance. The authors explore novel RHD screening methodology that could address some of these shortcomings and if proven to be of merit, would require a paradigm shift in the approach to the echocardiographic diagnosis of subclinical RHD.

Open access

C Bleakley, M Eskandari, O Aldalati, K Moschonas, M Huang, A Whittaker and M J Monaghan

Background

The mitral valve orifice area (MVOA) is difficult to assess accurately by 2D echocardiography because of geometric assumptions; therefore, 3D planimetry may offer advantages. We studied the differences in MVOA measurements between the most frequently used methods, to determine if 3D planimetry would result in the re-grading of severity in any cases, and whether it was a more accurate predictor of clinical outcomes.

Methods

This was a head-to-head comparison of the three most commonly used techniques to grade mitral stenosis (MS) by orifice area and to assess their impact on clinical outcomes. 2D measurements (pressure half-time (PHT), planimetry) and 3D planimetry were performed retrospectively on patients with at least mild MS. The clinical primary endpoint was defined as a composite of MV balloon valvotomy, mitral valve repair or replacement (MVR) and/or acute heart failure (HF) admissions.

Results

Forty-one consecutive patients were included; the majority were female (35; 85.4%), average age 55 (17) years. Mean and peak MV gradients were 9.4 (4) mmHg and 19 (6) mmHg, respectively. 2D and 3D measures of MVOA differed significantly; mean 2D planimetry MVOA was 1.28 (0.40) cm2, mean 3D planimetry MVOA 1.15 (0.29) cm2 (P = 0.003). Mean PHT MVOA was 1.43 (0.44) cm2 (P = 0.046 and P < 0.001 in comparison to 2D and 3D planimetry methods, respectively). 3D planimetry reclassified 7 (17%) patients from mild-to-moderate MS, and 1 (2.4%) from moderate to severe. Overall, differences between the two methods were significant (X 2, P < 0.001). Only cases graded as severe by 3D predicted the primary outcome measure compared with mild or moderate cases (odds ratio 5.7).

Conclusion

3D planimetry in MS returns significantly smaller measurements, which in some cases results in the reclassification of severity. Routine use of 3D may significantly influence the management of MS, with a degree of prediction of clinical outcomes.