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Open access

Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction: identifying presence by left atrial function

Emily Worley, Bushra Rana, Lynne Williams, and Shaun Robinson

Objective

The left atrium (LA) is exposed to left ventricular pressure during diastole. Applying the 2016 American Society of Echocardiography left ventricular diastolic function (LVDF) guidelines, this study aims to investigate whether left atrial ejection fraction (LAEF) and left atrial active emptying fraction (LAAEF) are markers of diastolic dysfunction (LVDD).

Methods

Retrospective cohort of consecutive patients (n = 124) who underwent transthoracic echocardiography were studied. Doppler peak velocities of passive (MV E) and active filling (MV A) were measured and ratio E/A calculated. Tissue Doppler imaging parameters of peak early (e′) of the septal and lateral mitral annulus were measured, and average E/e′ ratio (E/e′) was calculated. Tricuspid regurgitation velocity, left atrial maximum volume, left atrial minimum volume and LA volume pre-contraction were measured, allowing calculation of LAEF and LAAEF. Subjects were assigned LVDF categories.

Results

Binomial logistic regression model (X2(2) = 48.924, P < 0.01) determined that LAEF and LAAEF predicted diastolic dysfunction with sensitivity 85.5% and specificity 78%. ROC curves determined good diagnostic accuracy for LAEF and LAAEF to predict LVDD, AUC 0.826 and 0.861 respectively. Logistic regression model (X2(2) = 39.525, P < 0.01) predicted those patients with E/e′ ≥14 using LAEF and LAAEF with sensitivity 51.6% and specificity 92.4%. Moderate correlations were found between E/e′ and log derivatives of LAEF and LAAEF.

Conclusions

A decline in LAAEF and LAEF is associated with worsening LVDD.

Open access

The evolution from cardiac physiologists to clinical scientists in the UK: a guide to attaining equivalence

Brian Campbell, Shaun Robinson, and Bushra Rana

At its inception, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was employed as a basic screening tool for the diagnosis of heart valve disease and as a crude indicator of left ventricular function. Since then, echocardiography has developed into a highly valued non-invasive imaging technique capable of providing extremely complex data for the diagnosis of even the subtlest cardiac pathologies. Its role is now pivotal in the diagnosis and monitoring of heart disease. With the evolution of advanced practice and devolving care, ordinarily performed by senior doctors, to the cardiac physiology workforce in the UK, significant benefits in terms of timely patient care and cost savings are possible. However, there needs to be appropriate level of accountability. This accountability is achieved in the UK with statutory regulation of healthcare professionals and is a crucial element in the patient protection system, particularly for professions in patient facing roles. However, statutory regulation for staff practising echocardiography is not currently mandatory in the UK, despite the level of responsibility and influence on patient care. Regulators protect the public against the risk of poor practice by setting agreed standards of practice and competence and registering those who are competent to practice. Regulators take action if professionals on their register do not meet their standards. The current cardiac physiology workforce can be recognised as registered clinical scientists using equivalence process through the Academy for Healthcare Science, and this review aims to describe the process in detail.

Open access

UK Cardiology Training in Core Echocardiography Symposium Report: the good the bad and the ugly

Anna Kydd, Afzal Sohaib, Rizwan Sarwar, David Holdsworth, and Bushra Rana

Training in core echocardiography skills within the UK has been the focus of considerable discussion following recent national surveys. This article reports the proceedings of a joint meeting held by the British Society of Echocardiography and British Junior Cardiologists' Association. It considers the current issues impacting on high-quality training and presents potential solutions for the future.

Open access

Tricuspid regurgitation and the right ventricle in risk stratification and timing of intervention

Bushra S Rana, Shaun Robinson, Rajeevan Francis, Mark Toshner, Martin J Swaans, Sharad Agarwal, Ravi de Silva, Amer A Rana, and Petros Nihoyannopoulos

Tricuspid regurgitation natural history and treatment remains poorly understood. Right ventricular function is a key factor in determining prognosis, timing for intervention and longer-term outcome. The right ventricle is a thin walled chamber with a predominance of longitudinal fibres and a shared ventricular septum. In health, the low-pressure pulmonary circulation results in a highly compliant RV well equipped to respond to changes in preload but sensitive to even small alterations in afterload. In Part 1 of this article, discussion focuses on key principles of ventricular function assessment and the importance of right ventricular chamber size, volumes and ejection fraction, particularly in risk stratification in tricuspid regurgitation. Part 2 of this article provides an understanding of the causes of tricuspid regurgitation in the contemporary era, with emphasis on key patient groups and their management.

Open access

The assessment of mitral valve disease: a guideline from the British Society of Echocardiography

Shaun Robinson, Liam Ring, Daniel X Augustine, Sushma Rekhraj, David Oxborough, Allan Harkness, Patrizio Lancellotti, and Bushra Rana

Mitral valve disease is common. Mitral regurgitation is the second most frequent indication for valve surgery in Europe and despite the decline of rheumatic fever in Western societies, mitral stenosis of any aetiology is a regular finding in all echo departments. Mitral valve disease is, therefore, one of the most common pathologies encountered by echocardiographers, as both a primary indication for echocardiography and a secondary finding when investigating other cardiovascular disease processes. Transthoracic, transoesophageal and exercise stress echocardiography play a crucial role in the assessment of mitral valve disease and are essential to identifying the aetiology, mechanism and severity of disease, and for helping to determine the appropriate timing and method of intervention. This guideline from the British Society of Echocardiography (BSE) describes the assessment of mitral regurgitation and mitral stenosis, and replaces previous BSE guidelines that describe the echocardiographic assessment of mitral anatomy prior to mitral valve repair surgery and percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty. It provides a comprehensive description of the imaging techniques (and their limitations) employed in the assessment of mitral valve disease. It describes a step-wise approach to identifying: aetiology and mechanism, disease severity, reparability and secondary effects on chamber geometry, function and pressures. Advanced echocardiographic techniques are described for both transthoracic and transoesophageal modalities, including TOE and exercise testing.

Open access

Echocardiographic assessment of the tricuspid and pulmonary valves: a practical guideline from the British Society of Echocardiography

Abbas Zaidi, David Oxborough, Daniel X Augustine, Radwa Bedair, Allan Harkness, Bushra Rana, Shaun Robinson, and Luigi P Badano

Transthoracic echocardiography is the first-line imaging modality in the assessment of right-sided valve disease. The principle objectives of the echocardiographic study are to determine the aetiology, mechanism and severity of valvular dysfunction, as well as consequences on right heart remodelling and estimations of pulmonary artery pressure. Echocardiographic data must be integrated with symptoms, to inform optimal timing and technique of interventions. The most common tricuspid valve abnormality is regurgitation secondary to annular dilatation in the context of atrial fibrillation or left-sided heart disease. Significant pulmonary valve disease is most commonly seen in congenital heart abnormalities. The aetiology and mechanism of tricuspid and pulmonary valve disease can usually be identified by 2D assessment of leaflet morphology and motion. Colour flow and spectral Doppler are required for assessment of severity, which must integrate data from multiple imaging planes and modalities. Transoesophageal echo is used when transthoracic data is incomplete, although the anterior position of the right heart means that transthoracic imaging is often superior. Three-dimensional echocardiography is a pivotal tool for accurate quantification of right ventricular volumes and regurgitant lesion severity, anatomical characterisation of valve morphology and remodelling pattern, and procedural guidance for catheter-based interventions. Exercise echocardiography may be used to elucidate symptom status and demonstrate functional reserve. Cardiac magnetic resonance and CT should be considered for complimentary data including right ventricular volume quantification, and precise cardiac and extracardiac anatomy. This British Society of Echocardiography guideline aims to give practical advice on the standardised acquisition and interpretation of echocardiographic data relating to the pulmonary and tricuspid valves.

Open access

A systematic approach to echocardiography in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a guideline protocol from the British Society of Echocardiography

Nicola Smith, Richard Steeds, Navroz Masani, Julie Sandoval, Gill Wharton, Jane Allen, John Chambers, Richard Jones, Guy Lloyd, Bushra Rana, Kevin O'Gallagher, Richard Wheeler, and Vishal Sharma

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a relatively common inherited cardiac condition with a prevalence of approximately one in 500. It results in otherwise unexplained hypertrophy of the myocardium and predisposes the patient to a variety of disease-related complications including sudden cardiac death. Echocardiography is of vital importance in the diagnosis, assessment and follow-up of patients with known or suspected HCM. The British Society of Echocardiography (BSE) has previously published a minimum dataset for transthoracic echocardiography, providing the core parameters necessary when performing a standard echocardiographic study. However, for patients with known or suspected HCM, additional views and measurements are necessary. These additional views allow more subtle abnormalities to be detected or may provide important information in order to identify patients with an adverse prognosis. The aim of this Guideline is to outline the additional images and measurements that should be obtained when performing a study on a patient with known or suspected HCM.

Open access

A minimum dataset for a standard transoesophageal echocardiogram: a guideline protocol from the British Society of Echocardiography

Richard Wheeler, Richard Steeds, Bushra Rana, Gill Wharton, Nicola Smith, Jane Allen, John Chambers, Richard Jones, Guy Lloyd, Kevin O'Gallagher, and Vishal Sharma

A systematic approach to transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) is essential to ensure that no pathology is missed during a study. In addition, a standardised approach facilitates the education and training of operators and is helpful when reviewing studies performed in other departments or by different operators. This document produced by the British Society of Echocardiography aims to provide a framework for a standard TOE study. In addition to a minimum dataset, the layout proposes a recommended sequence in which to perform a comprehensive study. It is recommended that this standardised approach is followed when performing TOE in all clinical settings, including intraoperative TOE to ensure important pathology is not missed. Consequently, this document has been prepared with the direct involvement of the Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthetists (ACTA).

Open access

Echocardiographic assessment of aortic stenosis: a practical guideline from the British Society of Echocardiography

Liam Ring, Benoy N Shah, Sanjeev Bhattacharyya, Allan Harkness, Mark Belham, David Oxborough, Keith Pearce, Bushra S Rana, Daniel X Augustine, Shaun Robinson, and Christophe Tribouilloy

The guideline provides a practical step-by-step guide in order to facilitate high-quality echocardiographic studies of patients with aortic stenosis. In addition, it addresses commonly encountered yet challenging clinical scenarios and covers the use of advanced echocardiographic techniques, including TOE and Dobutamine stress echocardiography in the assessment of aortic stenosis.

Open access

A minimum dataset for a standard adult transthoracic echocardiogram: a guideline protocol from the British Society of Echocardiography

Gill Wharton, Richard Steeds, Jane Allen, Hollie Phillips, Richard Jones, Prathap Kanagala, Guy Lloyd, Navroz Masani, Thomas Mathew, David Oxborough, Bushra Rana, Julie Sandoval, Richard Wheeler, Kevin O'Gallagher, and Vishal Sharma

There have been significant advances in the field of echocardiography with the introduction of a number of new techniques into standard clinical practice. Consequently, a ‘standard’ echocardiographic examination has evolved to become a more detailed and time-consuming examination that requires a high level of expertise. This Guideline produced by the British Society of Echocardiography (BSE) Education Committee aims to provide a minimum dataset that should be obtained in a comprehensive standard echocardiogram. In addition, the layout proposes a recommended sequence in which to acquire the images. If abnormal pathology is detected, additional views and measurements should be obtained with reference to other BSE protocols when appropriate. Adherence to these recommendations will promote an increased quality of echocardiography and facilitate accurate comparison of studies performed either by different operators or at different departments.