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Open access

Ramasamy Manivarmane, Rebecca Taylor, and Rajdeep Khattar

pulmonary or aortic position. Trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TOE) may provide better spatial resolution for imaging the pulmonary valve. Probe manipulation to provide modified 2D views, complemented with the 3D X -plane and zoom views can delineate the

Open access

Richard Wheeler, Richard Steeds, Bushra Rana, Gill Wharton, Nicola Smith, Jane Allen, John Chambers, Richard Jones, Guy Lloyd, Kevin O'Gallagher, and Vishal Sharma

A systematic approach to transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) is essential to ensure that no pathology is missed during a study. In addition, a standardised approach facilitates the education and training of operators and is helpful when reviewing studies performed in other departments or by different operators. This document produced by the British Society of Echocardiography aims to provide a framework for a standard TOE study. In addition to a minimum dataset, the layout proposes a recommended sequence in which to perform a comprehensive study. It is recommended that this standardised approach is followed when performing TOE in all clinical settings, including intraoperative TOE to ensure important pathology is not missed. Consequently, this document has been prepared with the direct involvement of the Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthetists (ACTA).

Open access

Erwan Donal, Elena Galli, Amedeo Anselmi, Auriane Bidaut, and Guillaume Leurent

device and in procedural guidance. In recent years, the development of real-time 3D trans-oesophageal echocardiography, intracardiac echocardiography, and fusion imaging, has paved the way for a more comprehensive evaluation and management of VHD, which

Open access

Baskar Sekar, Richard Wheeler, Navroz Masani, and Sean Gallagher

at http://movie-usa.glencoesoftware.com/video/10.1530/ERP-18-0022/video-4 . Download Video 4 Trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TOE) confirmed two small vegetation attached to two of the prosthetic aortic leaflets, but without significant

Open access

T-J John, H W Snyman, J Janson, and A J K Pecoraro

can suspect the diagnosis with a high degree of certainty based on history, clinical examination and echocardiographic findings. Laboratory studies are nonspecific and often non-contributory. Trans-oesophageal echocardiography is more sensitive than

Open access

Thomas Mathew, Lynne Williams, Govardhan Navaratnam, Bushra Rana, Richard Wheeler, Katherine Collins, Allan Harkness, Richard Jones, Dan Knight, Kevin O'Gallagher, David Oxborough, Liam Ring, Julie Sandoval, Martin Stout, Vishal Sharma, Richard P Steeds, and on behalf of the British Society of Echocardiography Education Committee

of patients, trans-oesophageal echocardiography may be required for further clarification. Tricuspid regurgitation (TR): Functional TR in DCM is a marker of RV dilatation, RV dysfunction or pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary artery pressure measured

Open access

Robert M Cooper, Adeel Shahzad, James Newton, Niels Vejlstrup, Anna Axelsson, Vishal Sharma, OIiver Ormerod, and Rodney H Stables

echocardiographic modalities available are trans-oesophageal echocardiography and intra-cardiac echocardiography (ICE). ICE has been shown to provide high-quality images in other interventional procedures (17) , (18) . No sedation or anaesthetic agents are

Open access

Liam Ring, Benoy N Shah, Sanjeev Bhattacharyya, Allan Harkness, Mark Belham, David Oxborough, Keith Pearce, Bushra S Rana, Daniel X Augustine, Shaun Robinson, and Christophe Tribouilloy

modalities Trans-oesophageal echocardiography Key points TOE is rarely required for the assessment of AS. If TTE is insufficient, Doppler interrogation using TOE may confirm the severity of AS. TOE imaging windows are shown in