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Michael Roshen, Sophia John, Selda Ahmet, Rajiv Amersey, Sandy Gupta, and George Collins

Introduction Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) remains the commonest cardiac imaging modality as it is safe, cost-effective and useful in the diagnosis, management and follow-up of most cardiac conditions ( 1 ). As with all investigations

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Malgorzata Wamil, Sacha Bull, and James Newton

Introduction Over the past decade, advancements in transoesophageal echocardiography technology (TOE) have expanded the clinical applications of TOE beyond that of a purely diagnostic tool for assessing the valvular pathology. The latest TOE

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Viren Ahluwalia, Faizel Osman, Jitendra Parmar, and Jamal Nasir Khan

bicuspid aortic valve disease with aortic stenosis. On admission, leucophilia (WCC 18 × 10 9 /L), anaemia (Hb 70 g/L), acute kidney injury and Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia were present. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed thickening of the

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Azad Mashari, Mario Montealegre-Gallegos, Ziyad Knio, Lu Yeh, Jelliffe Jeganathan, Robina Matyal, Kamal R Khabbaz, and Feroze Mahmood

Introduction Imaging techniques such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are commonly used for diagnosis, monitoring, and decision-making in patients with cardiovascular

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Liam Ring, Benoy N Shah, Sanjeev Bhattacharyya, Allan Harkness, Mark Belham, David Oxborough, Keith Pearce, Bushra S Rana, Daniel X Augustine, Shaun Robinson, and Christophe Tribouilloy

surgical or percutaneous intervention ( 2 ). Echocardiography is central in the diagnosis, assessment and management of individuals with aortic valve disease. The British Society of Echocardiography (BSE) has previously published a guideline document in

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Boyang Liu, Nicola C Edwards, Simon Ray, and Richard P Steeds

and highlights the importance of exercise stress echocardiography in the management of primary and secondary MR. Video 1 Primary mitral regurgitation with flail A2 scallop of the anterior mitral valve leaflet. View Video 1 at http

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Tan Suwatanaviroj, Weimin He, Edith Pituskin, Ian Paterson, Jonathan Choy, and Harald Becher

heart disease ( 1 ), heart failure ( 2 , 3 ) and myocardial infarction ( 4 ) require regular monitoring of EF to follow the clinical course of disease. When two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography is used for serial assessments of EF, one of the most

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Nikhil Ahluwalia, Sanjeev Bhattacharyya, Christopher Munns, and John Chambers

Background Electrical cardioversion to restore sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation ( 1 ) is usually preceded by anticoagulation for at least 3 weeks. However, transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) can be used to exclude atrial

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Richard P Steeds, Craig E Stiles, Vishal Sharma, John B Chambers, Guy Lloyd, and William Drake

echocardiography to exclude valvular heart disease in all patients before starting cabergoline or bromocriptine, followed by a second echocardiogram performed 3–6 months after commencement and then at 6–12-month intervals while continuing on the medication. It was

Open access

Shaun Robinson, Liam Ring, Daniel X Augustine, Sushma Rekhraj, David Oxborough, Allan Harkness, Patrizio Lancellotti, and Bushra Rana

several distinct but contiguous structures: a fibro-muscular annulus, two leaflets, tendinous chords and papillary muscles ( 1 ). In order to identify abnormal mitral anatomy by echocardiography and accurately diagnose disease severity, it is essential