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Girish Dwivedi, Ganadevan Mahadevan, Donie Jimenez, Michael Frenneaux, and Richard P Steeds

echocardiography (2DE), yet these continue to be the mainstay of valve assessment despite the growth of 3D echocardiography (3DE) (3) , (4) . The most widely used dimensions for the MA are obtained from peri-operative studies that identify cut-offs based on

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Robina Matyal, Faraz Mahmood, Ziyad Omar Knio, Stephanie B Jones, Lu Yeh, Rabia Amir, Ruma Bose, and John D Mitchell

). Similarly in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) teaching, the role of simulators in enhancing training has been established ( 8 , 9 , 10 ). While various metrics have been used in curriculum-based TEE training programs to evaluate acquisition of

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C Bleakley, M Eskandari, O Aldalati, K Moschonas, M Huang, A Whittaker, and M J Monaghan

Introduction 2D echocardiography, including Doppler, is the most commonly used method of assessment of mitral stenosis (MS) and is the basis of current guidelines on its management ( 1 , 2 ). However, the mitral valve is a complex structure

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P A Patel, K A Ravi, D P Ripley, J Kane, E Wass, A Carr, D Wilson, N Watchorn, R K Hobman, D Gill, W P Brooksby, N Kilcullen, and N Artis

such as stress echocardiography (SE), myocardial perfusion scintigraphy or stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is recommended in those patients with a PTL of 30–60%. For those with a PTL of 10–29%, CT calcium scoring should be performed in

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Caroline Bleakley, Mehdi Eskandari, and Mark Monaghan

. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE), multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been extensively studied with respect to pre-procedural aortic annular sizing, and at present, MDCT

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Victoria Pettemerides, Thomas Turner, Conor Steele, and Anita Macnab

, especially myocardial perfusion imaging and stress echocardiography in this setting ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ), and this underpins both European and American guidelines ( 7 , 8 ). Up until 2016 in the United Kingdom, functional imaging was also

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Alexandros Papachristidis, Damian Roper, Daniela Cassar Demarco, Ioannis Tsironis, Michael Papitsas, Jonathan Byrne, Khaled Alfakih, and Mark J Monaghan

Introduction Stress echocardiography (SE) is an established and widely used imaging functional test. It is included in most guidelines for the investigation of chest pain ( 1 ). It is also used in the risk stratification of patients with known

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Sveeta Badiani, Jet van Zalen, Saad Saheecha, Lesley Hart, Ann Topham, Nikhil Patel, Lydia Sturridge, Andrew Marshall, Neil Sulke, Stephen Furniss, and Guy Lloyd

outcomes is poorly described ( 9 , 10 , 11 ). The current AHA guidelines for surveillance echocardiography suggest re-testing every 1–2 years for patients with moderate AR, and every 3–5 years for patients with mild AR ( 12 ) while the ESC guidelines

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Mohammed Andaleeb Chowdhury, Jered M Cook, George V Moukarbel, Sana Ashtiani, Thomas A Schwann, Mark R Bonnell, Christopher J Cooper, and Samer J Khouri

models. The importance of RV systolic and diastolic echocardiographic parameters as a prognostic tool in patients with symptomatic heart failure has already been established ( 8 ). Identifying pre-operative RVD by echocardiography offers a relatively

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Lindsey E Hunter and Anna N Seale

( 10 ). A landmark study by Yagel et al. proposed examination of the fetal heart by five transverse views, which are currently used for cardiac screening. Other views used in transthoracic echocardiography can be obtained, for example, parasternal