Author guidelines


Editorial Process

Peer review 

Submissions are assessed by the Editorial Board and are subject to external peer review using the single blind method whereby the authors are blinded to the identity of the reviewers and editors.  
The Co-Editors-in-Chief and the Editorial Board operate a rapid triage system, but currently around 90% of papers undergo full external peer review.
The journal aims to return a decision on a peer-reviewed paper in less than a month.


Authors who feel they have grounds to appeal a rejection decision should send a rebuttal letter to the editorial office, detailing the reasons for the appeal.  Rebuttals will be considered by the handling Editor-in-Chief, often in consultation with the Associate Editor who handled the paper.  Decisions on appeals are final.

Submission Checklist

Your article

  • Structure – Ensure the submission is structured as requested by the journal, and contains all relevant sections. See ‘Preparation of Manuscripts’ for further details. 
  • Title page – All submissions must have a title page stating all of the relevant information. See’ General’ for further details. 
  • Format – All submissions should follow the journal guidelines for word count, page margins and line numbering. See ‘General’ for further details. 
  • Language – Non-native English speakers are encouraged to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission. See Bioscientifica's recommended English Language Editing Services
  • Reported data – Data accuracy is crucial. Authors are strongly encouraged to double-check all reported data for accuracy and to confirm that all units of measurement are correct and consistent. 
  • References – Please see ‘References’ for full details of the journal’s required style. 
  • Graphics - All figures and tables should be presented in a clear and informative manner with accompanying legends. 
  • Ethical compliance – All articles are required to meet the requirements outlined in our ethical policy. Ensure you have included all relevant ethical approval statements. 


Before submitting

  • Approval – Ensure all authors have seen and approved the final version of the article prior to submission.  All authors must also approve the journal to which you are submitting. 
  • Open Access – The appropriate Open Access licence must be selected on submission. Authors are responsible for ensuring any funder mandates are followed. For further details, please see the Open Access policy.
  • Charges – Echo Research and Practice is an online-only, open-access publication, and an article publication charge is payable upon acceptance. Full details are available on our publication charges page.

Uploading your submission

  • Author list – All authors must be listed on the title page and entered on the ScholarOne Manuscripts submission in the correct order. Ensure all author email addresses provided are valid.  Author information entered into ScholarOne Manuscripts will be used to generate PubMed listings for published papers.
  • Cover Letter – This letter should introduce your paper and outline why your work is important and suitable for publication at this time. 
  • File formats – Ensure all files are in the correct format for revised submissions.  See ‘General’ for further instructions. 
  • Figures and tables – Ensure all figures and table files are present and correct, and that they display clearly in the PDF proof. 

Preparation of Manuscripts 


Manuscripts should: 
  • Be concise and clear. 
  • Be limited to 5000 words for Research submissions. For information on other manuscript types please see the relevant section below.
  • Display the word count on the title page. 
  • Contain no more than 10 figures and 50 references as recommended by the journal.
  • Use double line spacing throughout (including reference list and figure legends), and contain continuous line numbering down the left-side of each page. 
  • Define all abbreviations when first mentioned.
  • Be submitted in the correct file type, i.e. main document in an editable Word format. 
  • Be written in either UK or US English. 
  • Contain a title page. 
Please be aware that the combined size of your files should not exceed 40 MB.
Accepted file types:
  • For article text: txt, doc, docx, tex, (pdf [first submissions only])*
  • For figures: eps, tiff, jpg, pdf
*We are unable to accept PDF files for article text for revised manuscripts.
Changes within revised manuscripts should be highlighted using the highlighter function or coloured text, and should be accompanied by a full response letter to editor and reviewer comments. 


All research submissions should be formatted with the following sections: 

1) Title Page

Include a separate title page with:
  • Title (maximum 85 characters)
  • All authors' names and full addresses
  • Corresponding author’s postal and email address
  • A short title (maximum 46 characters, including spaces)
  • A minimum of four keywords describing the manuscript 
  • Word count of the full article, excluding references and figure legends

2) Abstract

The abstract should be a single paragraph of not more than 250 words, clearly stating the objective of the study, the methods used (where applicable), and summarizing results and conclusions.  Avoid abbreviations and references in this section.

3) Introduction

The introduction should set the study in context by briefly reviewing relevant knowledge of the subject; follow this with a concise statement of the objectives of the study.

4) Materials and methods

Provide sufficient information for other workers to repeat the study. If well-established methods are used give a reference to the technique and provide full details of any modifications.
  • Give the generic name, dose and route of administration for drugs.
  • Use SI symbols, give concentrations in mol/L and define the term % as w/v or v/v for all solutions. For international units use IU (U should be used for enzyme activity).
  • Specify the type of equipment (microscopes/objective lenses, cameras, detectors) used to obtain images.
  • Specify any image acquisition software used, and give a description of specialized techniques requiring large amounts of processing, such as confocal, deconvolution, 3D reconstructions, or surface and volume rendering.

5) Results


6) Discussion 


7) Declaration of interest, Funding and Acknowledgements


Declaration of interest 

Actual or perceived conflicts of interest for all authors must be declared in full.
Please either (a) declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research reported; or (b) fully declare any financial or other potential conflict of interest.
Conflicts of interest include, but are not limited to:
  • Employment and consultancies
  • Grants, fees and honoraria
  • Ownership of stock or shares
  • Royalties
  • Patents (pending and actual)
  • Board membership


Please detail all of the sources of funding relevant to the research reported in the following format:
This work was supported by the Medical Research Council (grant numbers xxxx, yyyy); the Wellcome Trust (grant number xxxx); and Tommy’s Baby charity (grant number xxxx).
Where research has not been funded please state the following:
This research did not receive any specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sector.

Author contribution statement (optional)

Please include a statement specifying the contribution of each co-author.


Please be as brief as possible.

8) References

All references cited in the text must be included in the reference list and vice versa. However, if a reference consists of only a web address do not include it in the reference list but cite it in the text, giving the date the page was accessed.

Unpublished work

Any unpublished work (personal communications, manuscripts in preparation and manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted for publication) must be referred to in the text and not listed in the references.
Give the full list of authors, including their initials. For example:
(A Stone, J Brown & M R Smith, unpublished observations)
(J Brown, personal communication)
Articles accepted for publication but not yet published may be listed as ‘in press’ in the reference list, using the current year as the publication year. If an ‘in press’ article is included in the Accepted Preprint service or a similar scheme, then the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) should be included; otherwise, provide a copy of the article as a supplementary file for reviewing purposes. 

In the text

Cite references in the text in numerical order.

In the reference list

List references in the orderthey are cited in the text. List a maximum of ten authors. Where there are more than ten authors, list the first ten and then use et al.
Reference in the following format:
See RH, Calvo D, Shi Y, Kawa H, Luke MP & Yuan Z 2001 Stimulation of p300-mediated transcription by the kinase MEKK1. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276 16310–16317.
Harvey SS 1975 Hypnotics and sedatives. The barbiturates. In The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, edn 5, pp 102–123. Eds LS Goodman & A Gilman. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.

9) Tables

Tables should be concise. Tables too large for print publication should be submitted as supplementary data. 
  • Number tables in the order they are cited in the text.
  • Include a title – a single sentence at the head of the table that includes the name of the organism studied.
  • Use footnotes to provide any additional explanatory material, cross-referenced to the column entries.
  • Give a short heading for each column.
  • Do not use internal horizontal or vertical lines, colour or shading.
  • Explain all abbreviations used in the table in the footnotes.

10) Figures

The journal has produced digital image guidelines in order to clarify the standards expected by the journal. All submitted digital images must adhere to these guidelines. 
  • Number figures in the order they are cited in the text.
  • Include legends to all figures, giving the figure number, keys to any symbols used, the name of the organism studied, the names of any statistical tests used and the probability levels used for comparisons.
  • Label figure sections as A, B etc in the top left-hand corner.
  • Use Arial or a similar sans-serif font for text labels.
  • Do not enclose figures in boxes.
  • Indicate magnification by a scale bar in the bottom right-hand corner of the image and give the measurement in the legend.
  • Use the preferred symbols of closed and open circles, squares and triangles. Ensure that symbols are large enough to be read clearly when the figure is reduced for publication.
  • Use Courier or a similar non-proportional font for amino acid, DNA, RNA and PCR primer sequences and highlight sections of homology between sequences with grey shading.

File types and resolution

Echo Research and Practice is committed to publishing high quality figures.
EPS or TIFF files are preferred. Files should be exported in Illustrator compatible format, avoiding PowerPoint or Word files.
Additional information regarding the submission of figures can be found here.
  • Line images/graphs: EPS, TIFF, high-resolution PDF, AI (Adobe Illustrator); resolution at final published size: 1200 dpi
  • Half-tone (greyscale) images: TIFF, high-resolution PDF, JPEG; resolution at final published size: 600 dpi
  • Colour images: TIFF, high-resolution PDF, JPEG. EPS or AI files can be used for graphical data and illustrations that don’t include photographs; resolution at final published size: 300 dpi; colour format: RGB

11) Videos

The journal is capable of incorporating videos into articles published online. Videos should only contain one cardiac cycle, and be less than 1.5 MB (exceptions will be made for 3D).
Upload your video as a supplementary file when submitting through the ScholarOne manuscripts system. Authors should keep copies of everything submitted as the Editorial Office will not retain files once a final decision has been confirmed.
The journal will accept video file submissions in the following formats: MP4, MOV, MPG, and AVI file types. Please ensure video legends are included with the figure/table legends.
Echo Research and Practice also accepts the following manuscript types:


The format of review articles is more fluid but should include the following: 
1. Title page
2. Abstract
3. Conclusions
4. Declaration of interest, Funding, Author contributions statements (where appropriate)
5. References, 
6. Figure legends
7. Figures/ tables
Review submissions should be limited to 5,000 words. We recommend a maximum of 60 references for review articles, with 2–6 figures and tables.  Original summary diagrams and illustrations of proposed models (in colour where appropriate) are encouraged. Line drawings may be redrawn. Boxes can be used to separate detailed explanations and background information from the main part of the text.
For further information on what is include in each of these sections, please see the ‘Manuscript Preparation’ section above.  

Guidelines and Recommendations

The format of guidelines and recommendation articles depends on the content. Generally these articles are commissioned by the editorial board and undergo peer review.  If you would like to submit an article for consideration please submit a proposal to the editorial office

Case Reports

Case reports must have clear learning points to inform medical education and clinical practice. Please complete our case report template.

Images and Videos

Image and video submissions must be particularly notable or unique. Please complete our image and video article template.


Editorials include substantiated commentary by reviewers on recently-reviewed articles, and must be a maximum 1500 words (including references, legends and tables) and 10 references.

Supplementary Data

Supplementary data too large for print publication or exceeding the bounds of the manuscript may be submitted for online publication.
Supplementary data files intended for online publication should be submitted online via ScholarOne Manuscripts as ‘Supplemental File for Review’, and referred to as supplementary data in the text:
(Supplementary Table 1)
(Supplementary Figures 1 and 2)
Supplementary information will be reviewed as part of the manuscript, evaluated for its importance and relevance and, if accepted, will be referenced in the text of the article.

Editorial Policy


Human Subjects Research

Human subjects

Authors must ensure research involving human subjects complies with the Declaration of Helsinki.
Authors must include a statement that consent has been obtained from each patient after full explanation of the purpose and nature of all procedures used. For research requiring ethics committee approval, please include a statement to this effect in the manuscript. Also indicate whether patient consent was obtained in line with the below policy. We will be unable to accept research papers without this statement.

Patient consent

Where possible, identifying information, including names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, or pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Any identifiable patient must be shown the manuscript to be published before being asked to give consent. Authors should disclose to these patients whether any potential identifiable material might be available online or in print after publication. Informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt that anonymity can be maintained. We no longer publish pictures with black bands across the eyes without a signed consent form, because bands fail to mask someone’s identity effectively.
Authors submitting case reports are required to state that they have obtained informed consent from the patient or the patient's guardian for publication of the submitted article and accompanying images. Authors should obtain written consent from the patient for use of potential identifiable material including photographs.
The patient (or parent or guardian) must give written informed consent for publication by signing our consent form. Signed consent forms should then be retained in the patient's clinical notes for future reference, and a copy should be made available for review by the Editor on request.
The manuscript reporting this patient's details should state that 'Written informed consent for publication of their clinical details and/or clinical images was obtained from the patient/parent/guardian/relative of the patient'.
If the patient is deceased the authors should seek permission from a relative and include a statement to this fact. If neither the patient or a relative can be traced, we can only publish if we are satisfied the information has been sufficiently anonymised, making it impossible to identify the patient with any certainty.
Permission is not required to publish the 'recordings' listed below, provided that the recordings are effectively anonymised by the removal of any identifying marks, and patient details (i.e. patient name, date of birth, name of hospital) from images before submission:
  • Images taken from pathology slides;
  • X-rays;
  • Laparoscopic images;
  • Images of internal organs; and
  • Ultrasound images
When such an image is accompanied by text that could reveal the patient's identity through clinical or personal detail, however, a signed consent form and declaration as listed above, will be required before publication.


Animal studies 

Experiments with animals must be performed in accordance with international, national and institutional requirements. Include a statement that investigations have been approved by the local ethical committee, along with the following:
  • Give the full binomial Latin names for all experimental animals other than common laboratory animals.
  • State the breed or strain and source of animals, and give details of age, weight, sex and housing.
  • Detail the procedures and anaesthetics used, including doses given.
Articles will only be considered if the procedures used are clearly described and conformed with the international and national legal and ethical requirements, as well as the requirements outlined by the institution in which the work took place. A statement identifying the committee approving the study must also be included in the Methods section. 
Authors are encouraged to refer to the ARRIVE guidelines, and in particular the checklist within them, when preparing manuscripts detailing animal experiments.
Editors reserve the right to request further information on the exact procedures and ethical approval obtained as part of the review process. Papers may be rejected on ethical grounds should the editors feel the study does not adequately meet current international guidelines for humane research.

Statistical analysis 

It is the author’s responsibility to document that the results are reproducible and that the differences found are not due to random variation. No absolute rules can be applied but, in general, quantitative data should be from no fewer than three replicate experiments. Appropriate statistical methods should be used to test the significance of differences in results. The term ‘significant’ should not be used unless statistical analysis was performed, and the probability value used to identify significance (e.g. P < 0.05) should be specified.
When several t-tests are employed, authors should be aware that nominal probability levels no longer apply. Accordingly, the multiple t-test, multiple range test, or similar techniques to permit simultaneous comparisons should be employed. Also, in lieu of using several t-tests, it is often more appropriate to utilize an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to permit pooling of data, increase the number of degrees of freedom, and improve reliability of results. Authors should use appropriate nonparametric tests when the data depart substantially from a normal distribution.
In presenting results of linear regression analyses, it is desirable to show 95% confidence limits.
When data points are fitted with lines, specify the method used for fitting (graphical, least squares, computer program). If differences in slopes and/or axis intercepts are claimed for plotted lines, these should be supported by statistical analysis.
Give sufficient details of the experimental design and analysis so that the reader can assess their adequacy and validity for testing the hypotheses of interest.
In particular:
  • Describe the numbers of experimental units used and the way in which they have been allocated to treatments.
  • Justify the omission of any observations from the analysis.
  • Describe methods of analysis precisely and state any necessary assumptions, as these may affect the conclusions that can be drawn from the experiment.

Preprint repositories

A preprint is a version of the article prior to submission to the journal for peer review, and has not been copyedited or typeset.
Bioscientifica allows deposition of preprints to recognized repositories, such as bioRxiv, provided that Bioscientifica is informed of this at the time of submission and it does not infringe any subsequent copyright or licence agreement.
Upon final publication, authors are required to add a link from the preprint to the published article (version of record).

Licence and Copyright

Authors retain copyright of their articles and may choose to publish under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY); Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC); or Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND) licences. Please see 'Gold' open access licenses for further information. Authors are permitted to copy and redistribute their work within the terms of their selected license. In the latter two cases authors also grant the British Society of Echocardiography and Bioscientifica Ltd commercial rights

BSE Reaccreditation Points

In order to recognize the wider and in-depth reading associated with writing for publication, BSE re-accreditation points for articles published in Echo Research and Practice can be claimed as follows:
Systematic review or Meta-analysis First author = 6 points
  Senior author = 4 points
  Second author = 2 points
Original research First author = 8 points
  Senior author = 6 points
  Second author = 4 points
Other article type from the above 2 points

This is effective from now through individual choice, or effective from the candidate's next reaccreditation cycle start time if they prefer.

Privacy policy

Echo Research and Practice’s privacy policy can be viewed here.