Browse

You are looking at 101 - 110 of 271 items for

  • Refine by Access: All content x
Clear All
Open access

Emily Worley, Bushra Rana, Lynne Williams, and Shaun Robinson

Objective

The left atrium (LA) is exposed to left ventricular pressure during diastole. Applying the 2016 American Society of Echocardiography left ventricular diastolic function (LVDF) guidelines, this study aims to investigate whether left atrial ejection fraction (LAEF) and left atrial active emptying fraction (LAAEF) are markers of diastolic dysfunction (LVDD).

Methods

Retrospective cohort of consecutive patients (n = 124) who underwent transthoracic echocardiography were studied. Doppler peak velocities of passive (MV E) and active filling (MV A) were measured and ratio E/A calculated. Tissue Doppler imaging parameters of peak early (e′) of the septal and lateral mitral annulus were measured, and average E/e′ ratio (E/e′) was calculated. Tricuspid regurgitation velocity, left atrial maximum volume, left atrial minimum volume and LA volume pre-contraction were measured, allowing calculation of LAEF and LAAEF. Subjects were assigned LVDF categories.

Results

Binomial logistic regression model (X 2(2) = 48.924, P < 0.01) determined that LAEF and LAAEF predicted diastolic dysfunction with sensitivity 85.5% and specificity 78%. ROC curves determined good diagnostic accuracy for LAEF and LAAEF to predict LVDD, AUC 0.826 and 0.861 respectively. Logistic regression model (X 2(2) = 39.525, P < 0.01) predicted those patients with E/e′ ≥14 using LAEF and LAAEF with sensitivity 51.6% and specificity 92.4%. Moderate correlations were found between E/e′ and log derivatives of LAEF and LAAEF.

Conclusions

A decline in LAAEF and LAEF is associated with worsening LVDD.

Open access

Manasawee Indrabhinduwat, Maria C Arciniegas Calle, Joseph P Colgan, and Hector R Villarraga

Summary

Thirty-seven-year-old male presented with cough, dyspnea, significant weight loss (20 kg) and subacute fever for the past 2 months. Physical examination revealed inspiratory and expiratory wheezing bilaterally. A normal S1, S2 and a 3/6 systolic ejection murmur at the left upper parasternal border with respiratory variation were found during cardiac auscultation. Kidney and bone marrow biopsy reported a high-grade B-cell lymphoma. Echocardiography and cardiac CT findings consisted of multiple intracardiac masses affecting the right ventricular (RV) outflow track, RV apex, medial portion of the right atrium and posterior left atrium, as well as mild impairment of the RV systolic function. The masses in the RV outflow track caused partial obstruction (pulmonary valve peak velocity 2.3 m/s) with a RV systolic pressure of 43 mmHg. The infiltrative mass in the interatrial septum extended into both the right and left atrial cavities. The right superior pulmonary vein was occluded. This patient was treated with aggressive chemotherapy and had a good clinical response that resulted in mass size reduction after the first course of chemotherapy. Multimodality imaging techniques such as echocardiography, cardiac CT and PET scan can provide complementary information to better evaluate, stage and manage these patients.

Learning points:

  • Lymphoma can be found as a primary tumor in cardiac tissue, but secondary cardiac lymphoma is far more common.

  • Appropriate investigation, histopathology, immunophenotype, staging and risk assessment are required for definite diagnosis and treatment.

  • Cardiac lymphoma frequently manifests as an ill-defined, infiltrative mass. Typical location is in the atrium (right atrium is the most common site). Pericardial thickening or effusion is also common.

  • Echocardiography is a quick, bedside, non-invasive assessment of anatomical involvement and hemodynamics affected by cardiac lymphoma. Echocardiographic findings of cardiac lymphoma include a hypoechoic, ill-defined infiltrative masses in the myocardium, nodular protrusion into cardiac chambers and pericardial effusion. Obstruction of inflow/outflow track can also be found.

  • If a diagnosis of cardiac lymphoma is made, the most effective treatment is chemotherapy. Surgical treatment may have a role when hemodynamic compromise does not respond to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Open access

Thomas R Porter

In a study, published in this issue of Echo Research and Practice, Ntoskas et al. retrospectively analyzed the safety of a cardiac physiologist performing, and interpreting, Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in of 300 patients undergoing DSE for the detection of inducible reversible ischemia, myocardial viability and valvular heart disease. While safety during the tests themselves did not appear to be compromised with this unsupervised approach, the interpretation of these DSEs causes concerns regarding broad patient safety relative to misread results.

Open access

Theodoros Ntoskas, Farhanda Ahmad, and Paul Woodmansey

Background

Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) services have traditionally been medically led. In some UK institutions, DSE lists are led by physiologists with medical support. In our tertiary cardiac centre at New Cross Hospital (NCH), the DSE service was established by a consultant echocardiographer. Following intensive training and assessment, the Trust approved drug administration by named senior cardiac physiologists. We believe this is the first report of a cardiac physiologist-managed DSE service, including physiologist drug administration. We have assessed the feasibility, safety and validity of this physiologist-led DSE service.

Methods

Retrospective analysis of 333 patients undergoing stress echocardiogram for inducible reversible ischaemia, myocardial viability and valvular heart disease over 6 months. Patients’ case notes review after 18–24 months.

Results

Overall, 92% of all cases (306) were performed by physiologists. In 300 studies, dobutamine was administered. The majority of the referrals were for coronary artery disease (CAD) assessment (281). In 235 cases, the study was uncomplicated. Sixty-seven patients developed dobutamine-related side effects. In 16 cases, complications led to early termination of the study. In two cases, urgent medical review was needed. Of the 281 studies for CAD assessment, 239 were negative for ischaemia, 28 were positive and 14 inconclusive. In 5 out of 28 cases with echocardiogram, evidence of inducible ischaemia, coronary angiography revealed unobstructed coronary arteries.

Conclusion

This study demonstrates the safety and effectiveness of this practice and provides potential for the expansion of the physiologists’ role and physiologist-led DSE services in other hospitals.

Open access

Athina Chasapi, Adam Hobbs, Theodore Velissaris, and Benoy N Shah

Open access

Stephan Stoebe, Michael Metze, Daniel Jurisch, Bhupendar Tayal, Kilian Solty, Ulrich Laufs, Dietrich Pfeiffer, and Andreas Hagendorff

Purpose

The study compares the feasibility of the quantitative volumetric and semi-quantitative approach for quantification of chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) using different imaging modalities.

Methods

Left ventricular (LV) volumes, regurgitant volumes (RVol) and regurgitant fractions (RF) were assessed retrospectively by 2D, 3D echocardiography and cMRI in 55 chronic AR patients. Semi-quantitative parameters were assessed by 2D echocardiography.

Results

22 (40%) patients had mild, 25 (46%) moderate and 8 (14%) severe AR. The quantitative volumetric approach was feasible using 2D, 3D echocardiography and cMRI, whereas the feasibility of semi-quantitative parameters varied considerably. LV volume (LVEDV, LVESV, SVtot) analyses showed good correlations between the different imaging modalities, although significantly increased LV volumes were assessed by cMRI. RVol was significantly different between 2D/3D echocardiography and 2D echocardiography/cMRI but was not significantly different between 3D echocardiography/cMRI. RF was not statistically different between 2D echocardiography/cMRI and 3D echocardiography/cMRI showing poor correlations (r < 0.5) between the different imaging modalities. For AR grading by RF, moderate agreement was observed between 2D/3D echocardiography and 2D echocardiography/cMRI and good agreement was observed between 3D echocardiography/cMRI.

Conclusion

Semi-quantitative parameters are difficult to determine by 2D echocardiography in clinical routine. The quantitative volumetric RF assessment seems to be feasible and can be discussed as an alternative approach in chronic AR. However, RVol and RF did not correlate well between the different imaging modalities. The best agreement for grading of AR severity by RF was observed between 3D echocardiography and cMRI. LV volumes can be verified by different approaches and different imaging modalities.

Open access

Real Lebeau, Karim Serri, Maria Di Lorenzo, Claude Sauvé, Van Hoai Viet Le, Vicky Soulières, Malak El-Rayes, Maude Pagé, Chimène Zaïani, Jérôme Garot, and Frédéric Poulin

Background

Simpson biplane method and 3D by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), radionuclide angiography (RNA) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) are the most accepted techniques for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) assessment. Wall motion score index (WMSI) by TTE is an accepted complement. However, the conversion from WMSI to LVEF is obtained through a regression equation, which may limit its use. In this retrospective study, we aimed to validate a new method to derive LVEF from the wall motion score in 95 patients.

Methods

The new score consisted of attributing a segmental EF to each LV segment based on the wall motion score and averaging all 16 segmental EF into a global LVEF. This segmental EF score was calculated on TTE in 95 patients, and RNA was used as the reference LVEF method. LVEF using the new segmental EF 15-40-65 score on TTE was compared to the reference methods using linear regression and Bland–Altman analyses.

Results

The median LVEF was 45% (interquartile range 32–53%; range from 15 to 65%). Our new segmental EF 15-40-65 score derived on TTE correlated strongly with RNA-LVEF (r = 0.97). Overall, the new score resulted in good agreement of LVEF compared to RNA (mean bias 0.61%). The standard deviations (s.d.s) of the distributions of inter-method difference for the comparison of the new score with RNA were 6.2%, indicating good precision.

Conclusion

LVEF assessment using segmental EF derived from the wall motion score applied to each of the 16 LV segments has excellent correlation and agreement with a reference method.

Open access

Merrill Thomas, Anna Grodzinsky, and III Martin Zink

Summary

Our patient presented with known mechanical mitral valve endocarditis documented by 2D transesophageal echocardiogram (TOE) from a recent hospitalization at an outside facility. On admission to our center, there was no prior knowledge of an incompletely ligated left atrial appendage (LAA) according to patient- or family-reported history, review of outside records or the outside facility’s 2D TOE report. A 3D TOE performed at our center to assess her pathology, since a month had passed from her prior hospitalization, revealed a LAA ligation with evidence of communication to the left atrium and with clot present in the appendage. This case report highlights the common finding of incomplete closure of the LAA following surgical ligation, thus making it inadequate for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, and that 3D TOE plays a valuable role in assessing the durability of LAA ligation.

Learning points:

  • 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TOE) is a valuable tool in assessing the durability of left atrial appendage (LAA) ligation given the superior image granularity as compared with 2D TOE.

  • LAA ligation may not be adequate for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation as incomplete closure is common following surgical ligation.

  • LAA occlusion should be considered in these cases.

Open access

Ines Sherifi, Alaa Mabrouk Salem Omar, Mithun Varghese, Menachem Weiner, Ani Anyanwu, Jason C Kovacic, Samin Sharma, Annapoorna Kini, and Partho P Sengupta

The optimal periprocedural imaging strategy during transcathether aortic valve replacement (TAVR) performed under moderate sedation is debated. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) provides suboptimal views due to poorer resolution and patient positioning, whereas use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) under moderate sedation is not widely utilized. The aim of our study was to compare the value of TTE in comparison with TEE guidance under moderate sedation during TAVR. The study population included 144 consecutive patients (mean age 83 ± 11 years, 78 (54%) females) who had TAVR under moderate sedation using either a TTE (n = 96) or TEE (n = 48). We compared procedural outcomes using propensity score matching. There were no significant inter-group differences in age, sex, ejection fraction, aortic valve area, pressure gradients, creatinine or type of valve used. The procedural time was significantly shorter in the TEE group (P < 0.001) and associated with a lower need for periprocedural aortograms (7.7 ± 1.9 vs 8.2 ± 1.9, P = 0.022) and a lower occurrence of acute kidney injury (1 vs 11, P = 0.047). The 1:1 propensity score matching also showed a lower procedural time (P = 0.032), number of aortograms (P = 0.014) and a trend toward lower acute kidney injury in the TEE group (P = 0.077). TAVR guidance using TEE is associated with a lower fluoroscopic time, a lower need for additional aortograms and trend in lower occurrence of post-TAVR acute kidney injury.

Open access

Daniel Modin, Ditte Madsen Andersen, and Tor Biering-Sørensen

Heart failure (HF) is a threat to public health. Heterogeneities in aetiology and phenotype complicate the diagnosis and management of HF. This is especially true when considering HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which makes up 50% of HF cases. Natriuretic peptides may aid in establishing a working diagnosis in patients suspected of HF, but echocardiography remains the optimal choice for diagnosing HF. Echocardiography provides important prognostic information in both HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HFpEF. Traditionally, emphasis has been put on the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). LVEF is useful for both diagnosis and prognosis in HFrEF. However, echocardiography offers more than this single parameter of systolic function, and for optimal risk assessment in HFrEF, an echocardiogram evaluating systolic, diastolic, left atrial and right ventricular function is beneficial. In this assessment echocardiographic modalities such as global longitudinal strain (GLS) by 2D speckle-tracking may be useful. LVEF offers little value in HFpEF and is neither helpful for diagnosis nor prognosis. Diastolic function quantified by E/e′ and systolic function determined by GLS offer prognostic insight in HFpEF. In HFpEF, other parameters of cardiac performance such as left atrial and right ventricular function evaluated by echocardiography also contribute with prognostic information. Hence, it is important to consider the entire echocardiogram and not focus solely on systolic function. Future research should focus on combining echocardiographic parameters into risk prediction models to adopt a more personalized approach to prognosis instead of identifying yet another echocardiographic biomarker.